Water Sensitive Urban Design: A Sustainable Design Approach To Reform Open Spaces in Low-Income Residential Rehabilitation Projects in Egypt

Main Article Content

Usama A. Nassar
Hosam S. El-Samaty
Ahmad A. Waseef

Abstract

Urban communities and cities often evolved alongside the rivers or coasts of the sea, the water element was always important and influential in shaping the visual and urban character. Neglecting such natural resource in urban development has a bad impact on city's economic, ecological and visual values and subsequently, on the rights of next generations. Moreover, programs of urban transformation and development in low-level residential projects suffer from random policies and blurred strategies which ignore natural and social opportunities. This requires new approaches which in turn comes out of an integrated strategy based on a multi-dimensional approach to solve the problem. Among them is Water Sensitive Urban Design (WSUD). which is a methodology that depends on respecting an important environmental natural resource "Water" and is oriented to use water more effectively and integrating water cycle with built environment.

The research will examine practically the efficiency of WSUD in reforming governmental rehabilitation housing projects, alongside with the urban rehabilitation standards. An urban residential area in Port Said coastal city will be selected for implementing this study. A proposed framework –from WSUD with urban rehabilitation standards– will be extracted to improve the quality of this area with its built context in order to alter water from being a potential nuisance into a valuable resource. Through Developing Design guidelines for WSUD implementation potentials, the study will reach developing actions on the urban and built level, to help assessing the validity of the proposed design guidelines in the light of WSUD contributions with rehabilitation process.

Article Details

How to Cite
Nassar, U. A., El-Samaty, H. S., & Waseef, A. A. (2017). Water Sensitive Urban Design: A Sustainable Design Approach To Reform Open Spaces in Low-Income Residential Rehabilitation Projects in Egypt. UPLanD - Journal of Urban Planning, Landscape & Environmental Design, 2(3), 123-148. Retrieved from http://upland.it/index.php/UPLanD/article/view/97
Section
Articles

References

Bigio, A. and Licciardi, G. (2010). The urban rehabilitation of Medinas: The World Bank experience in the Middle East and North Africa. Urban Development and Local Government Unit. Washington, DC, USA: Inter-American Development Bank.

BMT WBM Pty Ltd. (2009). Evaluating Options for Water Sensitive Urban Design – A National Guide. Australia

Bromley, R.D.E, and Jones, G.A., (1995). Conservation in Quito: Policies and Progress in the Historic Centre", Third World Planning Review 17, 1, pp. 41-.60.

Burgess, H. (1988). Tourism and the Preservation of Historic Cities: a Case Study of Old Jeddah, Saudi Arabia", in Arab Urban Development Institute, Preservation of Islamic Architectural Heritage (AUDI, Riyadh), pp. 123-135.

Butler, D. & Parkinson, J. (1997). Towards sustainable urban drainage. Water Sci. Technol. 35(9), 53–63.

De Chiara, J., Panero, J., & Zelnik, M. (1995). Time-saver standards for housing and residential development. New York: McGraw-Hill.

Diem, A. and Ansel, W. (2009). Integrated Rainwater Management with Green Roof – Building Site “Hohlgrabenäcker” in Suttgart-Zuffenhausen. Green Roofs – Bringing Nature Back to Town. In Proceedings of the International Green Roof Congress 2009, International Green Roof Association IGRA, 149-152.

Dreiseitl, H. and Grau, D. (2006). Water Landscape: Planning, Building and Designing with Water. Basel: Birkhäuser.

Echols, S. P. and Pennypacker, E. (2008). Learning from Artful Rainwater Design. In: Landscape Architecture, issue August 2008.

Georgi JN and Dimitriou D. (2010). The contribution of urban green spaces to the improvement of environment in cities: Case study of Chania, Greece. Building and Environment 45(6): 1401–1414.

Hoyer et al. (2011). Water Sensitive Urban Design Principles and Inspiration for Sustainable Stormwater Management in the City of the Future. Berlin: Jovis Verlag GmbH.

Interim Code of Practice for Sustainable Drainage Systems. (2004). National SUDS Working Group, UK.

Kruse, R. (2015). Tanner Springs Park, an Oasis in the Middle of the City. Retrieved form https://landarchs.com/tanner-springs-park-an-oasis-in-the-middle-of-the-city.

Lichfield, N., (1990). Economics in Urban Conservation. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge,

Lloyd, S. D., Wong, T. H. F. & Chesterfield, C. J. (2002). Water Sensitive Urban Design: A Stormwater Management Perspective, Melbourne. Cooperative Research Centre for Catchment Hydrology examples.

Melbourne Water. (2005). WSUD Engineering Procedures: Stormwater. CSIRO publishing, Collingwood, Australia.

Morison PJ, Brown RR, and Cocklin C. (2010). Transitioning to a waterways city: Municipal context, capacity and commitment. Water Science and Technology 62(1): 162–171.

National Water Commission. (2004). Intergovernmental agreement on a National Water Initiative. Commonwealth of Australia and the Governments of New South Wales, Victoria, Queensland, South Australia, the Australian Capital Territory and the Northern Territory.

NYSTRÖM, L. (Ed). (1999). City and culture. Cultural processes and urban sustainability. Kalmar, Sweden. Lenanders Tryckeri AB.

Oke TR (2009). The need to establish protocols in urban heat island work. Paper presented at the 8th Symposium on Urban Environments, Phoenix, Arizona, 12–15 January.

Pinheiro, A.I., and Del Rio, V. (1995). Cultural Corridor: a Preservation District in Downtown Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Traditional Dwellings and Settlements Review 4, 11, pp. 51-.64.

Razzu, G. (2005). Urban development, cultural heritage, poverty, and redistribution: the case of old Accra and Adwaso house. Habitat International, vol. 29, 399-419. Maryland Heights, MO, USA: Elsevier.

Rojas, E. (2002). Urban heritage conservation in Latin America and the Caribbean, a task for all the social actors. Washington, DC, USA: Inter-American Development Bank.

Roos, P., McCann, B., & Addison, M. (1980). Shaping the future. Baltimore: University Park Press.

Shutes, B. and Raggatt, L. (2010). Deliverable 2.2.5: Development of generic Best Management Practice (BMP) Principles for the management of stormwater as part of an integrated urban water resource management strategy.

SOÓKI-TÓTH, G. (2005). Városrehabilitáció az Európai Unióban (Urban regeneration in the EU). In: Városrehabilitáció és társadalom (Urban regeneration and society) ed. Egedy, T. Budapest, Hungary. MTA-FKI. p.63-70.

Steinberg, F. (1996). Conservation and rehabilitation of urban heritage in developing countries. Habitat International, 20(3), 463-475. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0197-3975(96)00012-4

Tsiros IX .(2010). Assessment and energy implications of street air temperature cooling by shade tress in Athens (Greece) under extremely hot weather conditions. Renewable Energy 35(8): 1866–1869.

Van Roon, M. (2007). Water localisation and reclamation: steps towards low impact urban design and development. J. Environ. Manage. 83, 437–447.

Wardani, S. (2011). Proceedings of the 3rd International Conference on Geotechnical Engineering for Disaster Mitigation and Rehabilitation 2011. Hackensack, N.J.: World Scientific.

Wong, T. H. F. (2006a). An overview of water sensitive urban design practices in Australia. Water Pract. Technol. 1(1), IWA publishing online—http://www.iwaponline.com/wpt/001/0018/0010018.pdf.