Addressing Italy’s urban flooding problems through the holistic watershed approach by using blue/green infrastructure

Main Article Content

Paul A. DeBarry

Abstract

Water resources have been neglected and stressed for many years, as anthropogenic changes in watersheds have increased runoff, decreased infiltration and aquifer recharge, caused stream incision and streambank erosion and degraded water quality and water resources. The watershed is the management unit to begin to solve stormwater problems and flooding issues. Reversing the mismanagement from the past is a complicated process and must consider a holistic approach factoring in all the processes that cause the aforementioned problems. There are many technological tools such as GIS and hydrologic, hydraulic and water quality models that help pinpoint the sources of problems in the watershed and help derive at a comprehensive solution. The objective of this paper is to provide researchers and practitioners a systematic, methodical and proven approach to documenting and solving water management issues cause by unmanaged anthropogenic changes that have occurred in rural and urban watersheds. There are many regulations and literature about flooding and watershed plans with very detailed guidelines composed by state authorities, however, there are few that completely address the comprehensive, inclusive approach to watershed management to solve a variety of problems. For example, the State of Pennsylvania, USA has separate flood plain management, stormwater management, erosion and sediment pollution control and nonpoint discharge and elimination system (NPDES), and water supply / wellhead protection programs and regulations as opposed to one single “water resources management” regulatory program. This paper defines an innovative approach to overcome some of the restrictions placed on engineers and planners by regulatory programs.

Article Details

How to Cite
DeBarry, P. A. (2019). Addressing Italy’s urban flooding problems through the holistic watershed approach by using blue/green infrastructure. UPLanD - Journal of Urban Planning, Landscape & Environmental Design, 4(1), 127-136. Retrieved from http://upland.it/index.php/UPLanD/article/view/168
Section
Articles

References

Bernhofer, C., Franke, J., Goldberg, V., Seegert, J., & Kuchler, W, (2006). Regional Climate Change. To be included in Future Flood Risk Analisis?. In J. Schanze, E. Zeman & J. Marsalek (Eds.), Flood Risk Management: Hazards, Vulnerability and Mitigation Measures (pp. 93-96). Dordrecht, NL: Springer.

DeBarry, P.A. (2004). Watersheds: Processes, Assessment and Management. New York, US: John Wiley & Sons.

DeBarry, P.A., et al. (1999). GIS Modules and Distributed Models of the Watershed. Washington, D.C., US: ASCE.

DeBarry, P.,A., & Longenecker, G. (2014, October). Letort Spring Run Collaborative Stormwater Management Project. Proceding of the Maryland Floodplain and Stormwater 10th Annual Conference. Linthicum, Maryland October 23, 2014

Delaware Department of Natural Resources and Environmental Control (DNREC) (2010). Appoquinimink River Watershed Stormwater Management Plan, New Castle, Delaware. Retrieved from:
http://www.dnrec.delaware.gov/swc/Drainage/Documents/Sediment%20and%20Stormwater%20Program/SW%20Watershed%20Models%20and%20Reports/AppoFinalReport-20100514.pdf

Fantappie, M., Priori, S., & Costantini, E.A.C. (2015) Soil erosion risk, Sicilian Region (1:250,000 scale). Journal of Maps, 11(2), 323-341. doi: 10.1080/17445647.2014.956349

Garbrecht, J., & Martz, L. (1994). Grid Size Dependency of Parameters Extracted From Digital Elevation Models. Computers & Geosciences 20(1): 85–87.

Losasso, M. (2016). Climate risk, Environmental planning, Urban design. UPLanD-Journal of Urban Planning, Landscape & Environmental Design, 1(1), 219-232. doi: 10.6092/2531-9906/5039

Moccia, F.D., & Sgobbo, A. (2016). Urban Resilience and pluvial flooding:the predictive study of the urban hydraulic behavior. In V. D’Ambrosio & M.F. Leone (Eds.), Environmental Design for Climate Change adaptation. Innovative models for the production of knowledge (pp. 136-145). Naples, IT: Clean.

Philadelphia Water Department (PWD) (2014). Wissahickon Creek Watershed Act 167 Plan. Retrieved from:
http://www.phillywatersheds.org/sites/default/files2/Introduction_Revised_Nov2014.pdf

Philadelphia Water Department (2019) Green Acres web site. Retrieved from:
http://www.phillywatersheds.org/category/blog-tags/green-acres

Romano, N., Palladino, M., Sica, B., & Di Fiore, P. (2013). Soil data from Italy (Campania). In European HYdropedological Data Inventory, Reference Report by the Joint Research Centreof the European Commission. Luxembourg: Publications Office of the European Union.

Salinas Rodriguez, C. N., Ashley, R., Gersonius, B., Rijke, J., Pathirana, A., & Zevenbergen, C. (2014). Incorporation and application of resilience in the context of water‐sensitive urban design: linking European and Australian perspectives. Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews: Water, 1(2), 173-186. doi: 10.1002/wat2.1017

Seybert, T.A. (1996). Effective Partitioning of Spatial Data for Use in a Distributed Runoff Model. PhD Dissertation, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Penn State University.

Shuster, W. D., Bonta, J., Thurston, H., Warnemuende, E., & Smith, D. R. (2005). Impacts of impervious surface on watershed hydrology: a review. Urban Water Journal, 2(4), 263-275. doi: 10.1080/15730620500386529

Sgobbo, A. (2018). Water Sensitive Urban Planning. Approach and opportunities in Mediterranean metropolitan areas. Rome, IT: INU Edizioni.

Sgobbo, A. (2018). The Value of Water: an Opportunity for the Eco-Social Regeneration of Mediterranean Metropolitan Areas. In F. Calabrò, L. Della Spina, C. Bevilacqua (Eds), New Metropolitan Perspectives. Local Knowledge and Innovation Dynamics Towards Territory Attractiveness Through the Implementation of Horizon/E2020/Agenda2030. vol 2 (pp. 505-512). Cham, CH: Springer. doi:10.1007/978-3-319-92102-0_53

Tarquini, S., Isola, I., Favalli, M., Mazzarini, F., Bisson, M., Pareschi, M.T., & Boschi, E. (2007). TINItaly/01 a new triangulated irregular network of Italy. Annals of Geophysics, 50(3), 407-425.

Tóth, B., Weynants, M., Nemes, A., Makó, A., Bilas, G., & Tóth, G. (2015). New generation of hydraulic pedotransfer functions for Europe. European journal of soil science, 66(1), 226-238. doi: 10.1111/ejss.12192

Vacca, A., Loddo, S., Melis, M. T., Funedda, A., Puddu, R., Verona, M., ... & Serra, G. (2014). A GIS based method for soil mapping in Sardinia, Italy: A geomatic approach. Journal of environmental management, 138, 87-96. doi: 10.1016/j.jenvman.2013.11.018

Zhou, Q., Mikkelsen, P. S., Halsnæs, K., & Arnbjerg-Nielsen, K. (2012). Framework for economic pluvial flood risk assessment considering climate change effects and adaptation benefits. Journal of Hydrology, 414, 539-549.